ALSA LC UNDIP

Nigerian Diplomat Incident: A Review from the Perspective of International Law

Nigerian​​ Diplomat​​ Incident​​ :​​ A​​ Review​​ from​​ the​​ Perspective​​ of​​ International​​ Law

By:​​ Keisha​​ Annisa​​ Putri,​​ Emyr​​ Zaki​​ Satyareswara,​​ and​​ Muhamad​​ Harli​​ Unanda

 

General​​ Overview

 

We​​ tend​​ to​​ see​​ the​​ ideal​​ condition​​ of​​ freedom,​​ and​​ world​​ peace​​ around​​ the​​ globe​​ as​​ the​​ perception​​ of​​ a​​ world​​ without​​ violence,​​ in​​ which​​ nations​​ attempt​​ to​​ cooperate​​ with​​ one​​ another.​​ Equal​​ human​​ rights,​​ technology,​​ free​​ education​​ for​​ all,​​ engineering,​​ the​​ availability​​ of​​ medication,​​ diplomacy,​​ or​​ an​​ end​​ to​​ all​​ types​​ of​​ conflict​​ might​​ all​​ contribute​​ to​​ world​​ peace.​​ Indonesia’s​​ Foreign​​ Ministry​​ apologized​​ for​​ the​​ immigration​​ officers​​ maltreating​​ a​​ Nigerian​​ diplomat​​ they​​ suspect​​ was​​ staying​​ illegally.​​ Abdurrahman​​ İbrahim,​​ a​​ Nigerian​​ consular​​ officer,​​ primarily​​ based​​ in​​ Jakarta,​​ was​​ captured​​ on​​ a​​ well-known​​ video​​ showing​​ three​​ immigration​​ officials​​ pinning​​ the​​ diplomat​​ inside​​ a​​ car.​​ In​​ line​​ with​​ Indonesian​​ authorities,​​ the​​ Nigerian​​ embassy​​ official​​ did​​ not​​ show​​ his​​ identity​​ files​​ during​​ a​​ periodic​​ checking​​ in​​ South​​ Jakarta1.​​ The​​ diplomat​​ turned​​ into​​ uncooperative​​ or​​ even​​ rebuked​​ the​​ immigration​​ officers.​​ Ibnu​​ Chuldun,​​ the​​ top​​ of​​ the​​ Jakarta​​ branch​​ of​​ the​​ Ministry​​ of​​ law​​ and​​ Human​​ Rights,​​ stated​​ and​​ delivered​​ that​​ Mr.​​ Ibrahim​​ was​​ held​​ down​​ in​​ the​​ automobile​​ after​​ he​​ attacked​​ immigration​​ officials​​ utilizing​​ shouting,​​ biting,​​ elbowing,​​ and​​ trying​​ to​​ break​​ vehicle​​ windows​​ due​​ to​​ the​​ fact​​ they​​ did​​ not​​ inform​​ him​​ wherein​​ he​​ might​​ be​​ taken​​ to.​​ Mr.​​ Chuldun​​ stated​​ one​​ of​​ the​​ immigration​​ officers​​ was​​ injured​​ in​​ his​​ lips,​​ forcing​​ them​​ to​​ restrain​​ the​​ diplomat​​ to​​ prevent​​ more​​ assaults.​​ Later,​​ he​​ produced​​ his​​ identification​​ documents.

The​​ unwarranted​​ attack​​ on​​ a​​ Nigerian​​ diplomat​​ in​​ Indonesia​​ is​​ reprehensible.​​ The​​ unprovoked​​ and​​ condemnable​​ attack​​ on​​ the​​ Nigerian​​ has​​ similarly​​ underlined​​ the​​ need​​ for​​ Nigeria​​ authorities​​ to​​ make​​ sure​​ that​​ its​​ citizens​​ abroad​​ are​​ accorded​​ the​​ deserved​​ admiration​​ in​​ their​​ international​​ host​​ locations.​​ In​​ the​​ strongest​​ terms,​​ the​​ Nigerian​​ government​​ condemns​​ what​​ is​​ in​​ effect​​ an​​ egregious​​ act​​ of​​ international​​ delinquency​​ by​​ Indonesian​​ state​​ actors​​ against​​ an​​ accredited​​ representative​​ of​​ the​​ Federal​​ Republic​​ of​​ Nigeria,​​ with​​ absolutely​​ no​​ justification​​ and​​ against​​ international​​ law,”​​ it​​ said​​ in​​ a​​ statement2.

International​​ netizens​​ have​​ said​​ the​​ assault​​ on​​ Ibrahim​​ is​​ reminiscent​​ of​​ George​​ Floyd’s​​ treatment​​ in​​ the​​ United​​ States​​ (US)​​ by​​ racist​​ white​​ policemen,​​ which​​ led​​ to​​ the​​ death​​ of​​ the​​ black​​ American.​​ It​​ is​​ said​​ that​​ the​​ Nigerian​​ diplomat​​ was​​ treated​​ as​​ if​​ he​​ was​​ a​​ criminal.​​ Many​​ Americans​​ have​​ supported​​ the​​ Nigerian​​ diplomat​​ and​​ other​​ well-meaning​​ global​​ citizens​​ condemn​​ in​​ strong​​ terms​​ the​​ barbaric​​ action​​ of​​ the​​ Indonesian​​ officials.​​ 

The​​ assault​​ on​​ the​​ Nigerian​​ diplomat​​ is​​ against​​ international​​ law​​ and​​ the​​ 1961​​ Vienna​​ Conventions​​ governing​​ Diplomatic​​ and​​ Consular​​ Relations​​ between​​ States.​​ Article​​ 29​​ of​​ the​​ Convention​​ specifically​​ states:​​ “The​​ person​​ of​​ a​​ diplomatic​​ agent​​ shall​​ be​​ inviolable.”​​ Also,​​ Article​​ 29​​ states​​ that​​ the​​ person​​ of​​ a​​ diplomatic​​ agent​​ shall​​ be​​ inviolable.​​ He​​ shall​​ not​​ be​​ liable​​ to​​ any​​ form​​ of​​ arrest​​ or​​ detention.​​ The​​ receiving​​ State​​ shall​​ treat​​ him​​ with​​ due​​ respect​​ and​​ shall​​ take​​ all​​ appropriate​​ steps​​ to​​ prevent​​ any​​ attack​​ on​​ his​​ person,​​ freedom,​​ or​​ dignity.​​ Therefore,​​ Article​​ 29​​ accommodates​​ the​​ individual​​ wellbeing​​ of​​ a​​ representative3.​​ On​​ account​​ of​​ Respublica​​ v​​ De​​ Longchamps,​​ it​​ was​​ expressed​​ that​​ "the​​ individual​​ of​​ a​​ public​​ minister​​ is​​ sacrosanct​​ and​​ untouched.​​ Whoever​​ offers​​ any​​ brutality​​ as​​ far​​ as​​ he​​ might​​ be​​ concerned,​​ not​​ only​​ affronts​​ the​​ Sovereign​​ he​​ addresses,​​ yet​​ additionally​​ harms​​ the​​ normal​​ security​​ and​​ prosperity​​ between​​ the​​ countries.​​ He​​ is​​ at​​ real​​ fault​​ for​​ the​​ wrongdoing​​ against​​ the​​ entire​​ world"4.​​ Global​​ law​​ takes​​ a​​ genuine​​ perspective​​ on​​ any​​ infringement​​ of​​ the​​ individual​​ insusceptibility​​ delighted​​ in​​ by​​ emissaries.​​ Many​​ states​​ have​​ outlined​​ laws​​ which​​ seriously​​ rebuff​​ people​​ acting​​ infringing​​ upon​​ this​​ standard​​ of​​ assurance.​​ The​​ unfamiliar​​ state​​ to​​ which​​ a​​ conciliatory​​ agent​​ is​​ licensed​​ has​​ an​​ obligation​​ to​​ find​​ quick​​ ways​​ to​​ arraign​​ the​​ offender.

The​​ Vienna​​ Convention​​ on​​ the​​ Law​​ of​​ treaties​​ is​​ a​​ worldwide​​ attention​​ directing​​ arrangements​​ between​​ states.​​ Known​​ as​​ the​​ "treaties​​ on​​ treaties”,​​ it​​ sets​​ up​​ comprehensive​​ rules,​​ methods,​​ and​​ rules​​ for​​ how​​ settlements​​ are​​ characterized,​​ drafted,​​ corrected,​​ translated.​​ The​​ present​​ Convention​​ applies​​ to​​ treaties​​ between​​ States.​​ The​​ provisions​​ of​​ paragraph​​ 1​​ regarding​​ the​​ use​​ of​​ terms​​ in​​ the​​ present​​ Convention​​ are​​ without​​ prejudice​​ to​​ the​​ use​​ of​​ those​​ terms​​ or​​ to​​ the​​ meanings​​ which​​ may​​ be​​ given​​ to​​ them​​ in​​ the​​ internal​​ law​​ of​​ any​​ State.

Nevertheless,​​ some​​ Indonesian​​ citizens​​ react​​ horrendously​​ towards​​ this​​ issue​​ and​​ blame​​ the​​ Nigerian​​ diplomat​​ instead​​ for​​ his​​ unpleasant​​ mannerism.​​ However,​​ citizens​​ think​​ that ​​​​ the​​ immigration​​ officers​​ from​​ South​​ Jakarta​​ Immigration​​ Office​​ were​​ carrying​​ out​​ surveillance​​ functions​​ on​​ foreigners.​​ When​​ they​​ asked​​ Mr​​ Abdulrahman​​ for​​ identification,​​ he​​ refused​​ to​​ identify​​ himself​​ or​​ tender​​ his​​ passport,​​ the​​ official​​ said.

 

However,​​ the​​ Vienna​​ Convention​​ on​​ Diplomatic​​ Relations​​ does​​ not​​ regulate​​ penalties​​ for​​ the​​ violence.​​ The​​ penalty​​ to​​ this​​ matter​​ is​​ left​​ entirely​​ to​​ the​​ country​​ concerned.​​ For​​ the​​ equation,​​ authors​​ will​​ review​​ another​​ case​​ which​​ is​​ similar​​ to​​ the​​ Nigerian​​ diplomat​​ incident.​​ In​​ 2015,​​ US​​ Ambassador​​ Mark​​ Lippert​​ was​​ slashed​​ on​​ the​​ face​​ and​​ wrist​​ by​​ a​​ man​​ wielding​​ a​​ knife​​ with​​ a​​ 10-inch​​ blade​​ and​​ screaming​​ that​​ the​​ rival​​ Koreas​​ should​​ be​​ unified.​​ The​​ attack​​ on​​ the​​ United​​ States​​ Ambassador​​ in​​ South​​ Korea​​ was​​ carried​​ out​​ by​​ South​​ Korean​​ civil​​ society​​ by​​ Kim​​ Ki-Jong,​​ a​​ South​​ Korean​​ citizen​​ who​​ is​​ a​​ member​​ of​​ the​​ Korean​​ nationalist​​ society.​​ Kim​​ attacked​​ with​​ a​​ political​​ motive,​​ namely​​ as​​ a​​ protest​​ against​​ joint​​ military​​ exercises​​ that​​ will​​ be​​ carried​​ out​​ by​​ South​​ Korea​​ and​​ the​​ United​​ States.​​ Kim​​ did​​ not​​ agree​​ with​​ the​​ military​​ drills​​ because​​ he​​ thought​​ South​​ Korea​​ could​​ unite​​ with​​ North​​ Korea,​​ with​​ military​​ exercises​​ damaging​​ South-North​​ Korea​​ relations.​​ Therefore,​​ Kim​​ attacked​​ Lippert,​​ who​​ was​​ then​​ the​​ American​​ ambassador​​ to​​ South​​ Korea,​​ as​​ an​​ act​​ of​​ protest.5​​ 

 

Based​​ on​​ the​​ internationally​​ agreed​​ provisions​​ in​​ the​​ Vienna​​ Convention​​ on​​ Diplomatic​​ Relations,​​ the​​ attack​​ on​​ the​​ United​​ States​​ Ambassador​​ to​​ South​​ Korea,​​ Mark​​ Lippert​​ by​​ South​​ Korean​​ civilians​​ has​​ clearly​​ failed​​ to​​ implement​​ the​​ provisions​​ in​​ article​​ 29​​ of​​ the​​ 1961​​ Vienna​​ Convention,​​ namely​​ every​​ Diplomatic​​ Representative​​ the​​ receiving​​ state​​ has​​ the​​ right​​ to​​ be​​ treated​​ with​​ respect​​ and​​ the​​ receiving​​ state​​ must​​ prevent​​ any​​ attack​​ on​​ his​​ body,​​ freedom,​​ or​​ dignity,​​ in​​ other​​ words,​​ that​​ diplomatic​​ representatives​​ must​​ be​​ protected​​ from​​ all​​ kinds​​ of​​ things​​ that​​ threaten​​ him,​​ and​​ South​​ Korea​​ is​​ negligent​​ to​​ fulfill​​ the​​ prevention​​ of​​ attacks​​ to​​ the​​ body,​​ freedom,​​ and​​ dignity​​ of​​ diplomatic​​ representatives.​​ South​​ Korea​​ is​​ responsible​​ for​​ restitution​​ by​​ paying​​ for​​ treatment​​ to​​ recover​​ as​​ before​​ as​​ well​​ as​​ by​​ apologizing​​ and​​ taking​​ the​​ perpetrators​​ of​​ the​​ attack​​ with​​ a​​ prison​​ sentence​​ of​​ 12​​ years.

 

Protected​​ individuals​​ are​​ entitled​​ to​​ respect​​ for​​ their​​ person,​​ honor,​​ family​​ rights,​​ religious​​ views​​ and​​ practices,​​ and​​ manners​​ and​​ traditions​​ under​​ all​​ situations.​​ They​​ must​​ be​​ treated​​ humanely​​ at​​ all​​ times,​​ and​​ they​​ must​​ be​​ safeguarded​​ from​​ any​​ acts​​ of​​ violence​​ or​​ threats​​ of​​ violence,​​ as​​ well​​ as​​ insults​​ and​​ public​​ curiosity.​​ The​​ legal​​ systems​​ differ​​ substantially​​ in​​ terms​​ of​​ how​​ penalties​​ are​​ administered,​​ as​​ well​​ as​​ in​​ terms​​ of​​ societal​​ and​​ judicial​​ understanding​​ of​​ the​​ necessity​​ of​​ effective,​​ proportionate,​​ and​​ dissuasive​​ punishments​​ in​​ discrimination​​ cases.​​ As​​ a​​ result,​​ one​​ form​​ of​​ penalty​​ may​​ be​​ the​​ most​​ effective,​​ proportional,​​ and​​ dissuasive​​ in​​ one​​ country​​ while​​ being​​ ineffective​​ in​​ another.​​ Another​​ factor​​ that​​ influences​​ the​​ appropriateness,​​ proportionality,​​ and​​ efficacy​​ of​​ a​​ tangible​​ penalty​​ is​​ the​​ victim's​​ perspective.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Daftar​​ Pustaka

 

[1]​​ Yusuf,​​ K.​​ (2021).​​ Indonesian​​ ambassador​​ meets​​ Onyeama,​​ defends​​ assault​​ on​​ Nigerian​​ diplomat.​​ from​​ https://www.premiumtimesng.com/news/headlines/478991-indonesian-ambassador-meets-onyeama-defends-assault-on-nigerian-diplomat.html

 

[2]​​ Toromade,​​ S.​​ (2021).​​ Nigeria​​ recalls​​ Ambassador​​ to​​ Indonesia​​ after​​ officials​​ assaulted​​ diplomat.​​ from​​ https://www.pulse.ng/news/local/nigeria-recalls-ambassador-to-indonesia-after-officials-assaulted-diplomat/g0dxwvd

 

[3]​​ Denza,​​ E.​​ (2021).​​ Vienna​​ Convention​​ on​​ Diplomatic​​ Relations.​​ From​​ https://legal.un.org/avl/ha/vcdr/vcdr.html

 

[4]​​ RESPUBLICA​​ v.​​ DE​​ LONGCHAMPS,​​ 1​​ U.S.​​ 111​​ (1784).​​ (2021).from​​ https://supreme.justia.com/cases/federal/us/1/111/

 

[5]​​ Agato​​ Kevindito​​ Josesa,​​ et​​ al.​​ 2016.​​ “Tanggung​​ Jawab​​ Negara​​ Terhadap​​ Perlindungan​​ Pejabat​​ Diplomat​​ Menurut​​ Konvensi​​ Wina​​ 1961​​ (Studi​​ Kasus​​ Penyerangan​​ Duta​​ Besar​​ Amerika​​ Serikat​​ di​​ Korea​​ Selatan)”.​​ Diponegoro​​ Law​​ Journal.​​ Volume​​ 5​​ Number​​ 3.​​ 2016.

 

 

1

​​ Yusuf,​​ K.​​ (2021).​​ Indonesian​​ ambassador​​ meets​​ Onyeama,​​ defends​​ assault​​ on​​ Nigerian​​ diplomat.​​ from​​ https://www.premiumtimesng.com/news/headlines/478991-indonesian-ambassador-meets-onyeama-defends-assault-on-nigerian-diplomat.html

2

​​ Toromade,​​ S.​​ (2021).​​ Nigeria​​ recalls​​ Ambassador​​ to​​ Indonesia​​ after​​ officials​​ assaulted​​ diplomat.​​ from​​ https://www.pulse.ng/news/local/nigeria-recalls-ambassador-to-indonesia-after-officials-assaulted-diplomat/g0dxwvd

3

​​ Denza,​​ E.​​ (2021).​​ Vienna​​ Convention​​ on​​ Diplomatic​​ Relations.​​ from​​ https://legal.un.org/avl/ha/vcdr/vcdr.html

4

​​ RESPUBLICA​​ v.​​ DE​​ LONGCHAMPS,​​ 1​​ U.S.​​ 111​​ (1784).​​ (2021).from​​ https://supreme.justia.com/cases/federal/us/1/111/

 

5

Josesa,​​ Agato​​ Kevindito​​ et​​ al.​​ “TANGGUNG​​ JAWAB​​ NEGARA​​ TERHADAP​​ PERLINDUNGAN​​ PEJABAT​​ DIPLOMATIK​​ MENURUT​​ KONVENSI​​ WINA​​ 1961​​ (Studi​​ Kasus​​ Penyerangan​​ Duta​​ Besar​​ Amerika​​ Serikat​​ di​​ Korea​​ Selatan).”​​ Diponegoro​​ Law​​ Journal​​ 5​​ (2016):​​ 16.